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使用Let's Encrypt免费证书让你的网站SSL化

说明

Let’s Encrypt是一个免费颁发SSL证书的非盈利组织,其颁布的证书已被Chrome等主流浏览器认可。GitHub Pages站点默认使用的SSL证书也是Let’s Encrypt提供的。

此文主要解决:

  1. 如何使用Let’s Encrypt为我们的域名颁发证书
  2. 颁发的证书如何自动更新有效时间

About certbot

本文使用Certbot完成HTTPS的自动颁发和续期。其官方介绍如下:

Certbot is a free, open source software tool for automatically using Let’s Encrypt certificates on manually-administrated websites to enable HTTPS.
Certbot is made by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), a 501(c)3 nonprofit based in San Francisco, CA, that defends digital privacy, free speech, and innovation.

使用环境

  • Web服务器:Nginx 1.18.0
  • 宿主服务器:Ubuntu 20.04

说明:如果不是使用的以上两个服务器或版本,可使用Certbot官网选择对应服务器和版本。

安装过程

1. SSH into the server

SSH into the server running your HTTP website as a user with sudo privileges.

2. Install snapd

You’ll need to install snapd and make sure you follow any instructions to enable classic snap support.
Follow these instructions on snapcraft’s site to install snapd.

If you’re running Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) or later, including Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver), Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish) and Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine), you don’t need to do anything. Snap is already installed and ready to go.

3. Ensure that your version of snapd is up to date

Execute the following instructions on the command line on the machine to ensure that you have the latest version of snapd.

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sudo snap install core; sudo snap refresh core

4. Remove certbot-auto and any Certbot OS packages

If you have any Certbot packages installed using an OS package manager like apt, dnf, or yum, you should remove them before installing the Certbot snap to ensure that when you run the command certbot the snap is used rather than the installation from your OS package manager.

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sudo apt-get remove certbot, sudo dnf remove certbot

If you previously used Certbot through the certbot-auto script, you should also remove its installation by following the instructions here.

5. Install Certbot

Run this command on the command line on the machine to install Certbot.

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sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Prepare the Certbot command

Execute the following instruction on the command line on the machine to ensure that the certbot command can be run.

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sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot

7. Get certificates and/or install certificates

7.1 Get and Install

Run this command to get a certificate and have Certbot edit your Nginx configuration automatically to serve it, turning on HTTPS access in a single step.

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sudo certbot --nginx

7.2 Just get a certificate

If you’re feeling more conservative and would like to make the changes to your Nginx configuration by hand, run this command.

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sudo certbot certonly --nginx

8. Test automatic renewal

The Certbot packages on your system come with a cron job or systemd timer that will renew your certificates automatically before they expire. You will not need to run Certbot again, unless you change your configuration. You can test automatic renewal for your certificates by running this command:

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sudo certbot renew --dry-run

The command to renew certbot is installed in one of the following locations:

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/etc/crontab/
/etc/cron.*/*
systemctl list-timers

My timers would be:

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root@us:/var/log/nginx# systemctl list-timers
NEXT LEFT LAST PASSED UNIT ACTIVATES
Sun 2021-05-09 13:20:00 CST 1h 57min left Sun 2021-05-09 01:22:05 CST 10h ago snap.certbot.renew.timer snap.certbot.renew.service
...
...

9. Confirm that Certbot worked

To confirm that your site is set up properly, visit https://yourwebsite.com/ in your browser and look for the lock icon in the URL bar.



转载请注明出处:使用Let's Encrypt免费证书让你的网站SSL化
原文地址:https://www.xiaotanzhu.com/nginx/letsencrypt-for-free-ssl-cert.html